Just to skim a little on this topic; To view song, album, artist name and other info on most music players, data must be stored either; on a CD as CD-Text or as Metadata to be used and submitted to the likes of Gracenotes and AllMusic online Metadatabase providers. For .mp3’s, embedded ID3 tags hold this information in the file structure.
CD-Text data must be entered into a CD Master for song information to be visible in newer Car stereos or CD Players that have a scrolling text LCD / LED. Although not all music CDs you buy at a store have CD-TEXT, it’s a nice touch. iTunes, WinAmp and other players use public metadata submissions to keep Metadatabase providers (such as Gracenotes and FreeDB) up-to-date with song information. Commercial providers like ‘LASSO’ by AMG (AllMusic) have to receive physical CDs to be considered as a submission into their database which is used by Windows Media Player, Sony Playstation and others.
These Metadatabases need an Internet-connected computer to work. Their CD recognition software works by reading a CD and either creating or recognizing a unique number ID. This ID is known as the “hashing code” which is a based on a formula that takes the CD’s number of tracks, track lengths and other CD data. Although the chances of there being a duplicate unique ID, the possibility is small.
So in short, if you’re computer does not have internet connection and the data was never submitted to a Metadatabase provider, you’re likely not going to see the song info in iTunes.